Bioluminescence

The Strange Logic of the Strawberry Squid’s Lopsided Eyes

Our oceans are an endless cornucopia of weirdness. Today, we’d like to introduce you to a cockeyed deep-sea cephalopod called the strawberry squid. Researchers writing in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B say each of the squid’s unusual eyes serves a separate purpose in the black depths of the sea.

Histioteuthis heteropsis (literally “different eyes”) is pink, studded with bioluminescent spots, and quite content to cruise through the “twilight zone” some 650–3300 feet beneath the surface of the ocean. It has one enormous yellow eye and one normal blue eye—as normal as squid eyes get, anyway.

Biologist Kate Thomas of Duke University, lead author on the paper, says she was impressed by the strawberry squid’s strangeness. “You can’t look at one and not wonder what’s going on with them,” she says in the video above.

So she decided to find out. She…

The World’s Funkiest Fungi

When it comes to the natural world, fungi are (truly) in a kingdom all their own. They help humans brew tasty beverages like beer, they recycle nutrients from dead plants and animals, and they provide nutrients for trees. Of course there are others that destroy food crops and kill any humans who accidentally ingest them. You never know what you’re going to get with fungus. In celebration of their weird and wonderful world, here are 15 fungi that will blow your mind (some of them in a literal sense).

1. SHOESTRING FUNGUS (ARMILLARIA OSTOYAE)

Jerzy Opioła via Wikimedia Commons

Hidden underground in Malheur National Forest, Oregon lives a creature so large it makes the blue whale look small. Meet the Humongous Fungus, the world’s biggest living organism. This four-square-mile patch is mostly hidden from view (a few odd mushrooms pop up here and there), but its impact is, well, humungous: this type of fungus causes root disease and kills conifers across North America.

2. BLACK WITCHES’ BUTTER (EXIDIA GLANDULOSA)

Dan Molter via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

This blister-like fungus grows on decaying logs and fallen branches, looking flat and rougher in dry conditions and swollen after rain. Despite its unappetizing appearance, the fungus is edible—though you might want to add some seasoning.

3. BLEEDING TOOTH FUNGUS (HYDNELLUM PECKII)

Bernypisa via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

One of the more disgusting-looking fungi of the world might cause concern for hikers who stumble across it. But the red liquid oozing out of it isn’t blood—it emerges due to guttation. This is a process that causes rapidly growing or metabolizing plants to excrete excess fluids. For the bleeding tooth fungus, the fluid happens to be bright red.

4. GLOW IN THE DARK MUSHROOMS (MYCENA CHLOROPHOS)

lalalfdfa via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

There are plenty of fungi that exhibit bioluminescence, but this particular species from Southeast Asia is the oldest known example. What makes it give off that eerie green glow? In 2015 scientists discovered a compound called hispidin, an antioxidant that undergoes a chemical reaction to create a glowing light.

5. CHICKEN OF THE WOODS (LAETIPORUS SULPHUREUS)

Gargoyle888 via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 3.0

Do you prefer your poultry in the form of nuggets, drumsticks—or maybe as fungus? This edible mushroom tastes like—you guessed it—chicken. It’s bright yellow and has no gills (the fine, black material you may have noticed on the underside of Portobello mushrooms). But watch out for a variation of this mushroom growing on conifers, since they’re a different species…

How a Jellyfish Gene Can Make Glow-in-the-Dark Beer

The intrepid home brewer can now create a truly unique beer. The ODIN, a company that sells DIY science kits, has created an at-home brewing kit that lets you create glowing beer, as Eater reports.

The bioluminescent beer gets its glow from a jellyfish gene in the genetically modified yeast. Jellyfish-derived fluorescence has…