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Why Is a Network Tunnel Called a “Tunnel”?

The terminology one encounters when getting into the computing world may seem odd or leave you puzzled at times, wondering how and why these terms are in use. With that in mind, today’s SuperUser Q&A post has the answers to a confused reader’s questions.

Today’s Question & Answer session comes to us courtesy of SuperUser—a subdivision of Stack Exchange, a community-driven grouping of Q&A web sites.

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The Question

SuperUser reader user7681202 wants to know why a network tunnel is called a “tunnel”:

I do not understand why the “tunnel” metaphor is used to describe a networking tunnel.

At first, I thought the reason was because the data was sent in an encrypted form so that an eavesdropper would not be able to see the data (seeing the data wrapped in a tunnel instead).

But what of the tunneling protocols that do not use encryption? Why are they also called “tunnels”?

Why is a network tunnel called a “tunnel”?

The Answer

SuperUser contributors Mokubai and DavidPostill have the answer for us. First up, Mokubai:

In the case of roads, a real world tunnel is a constructed passage that allows you to pass directly from point A to point…

Disable WPAD in Windows to Stay Safe on Public Wi-Fi Networks

Web Proxy Auto-Discovery (WPAD) gives organizations a way to automatically configure a proxy server on your system. Windows enables this setting by default. Here’s why that’s a problem.

WPAD is really useful when an organization like your company or school needs to configure a proxy server for your connection to their network. It saves you from having to set things up yourself. However, WPAD can cause problems should you connect to a malicious public Wi-FI network. With WPAD enabled, that Wi-Fi network can automatically configure a proxy server in Windows. All your web browsing traffic would be routed through the proxy server while you’re connected to the Wi-Fi network—potentially exposing sensitive data. Most operating systems support WPAD. The problem is that in Windows, WPAD is enabled by default. It’s a potentially dangerous setting, and it should not be enabled unless you really need it.

WPAD, Explained

Proxy servers—not to be confused with virtual private networks (VPNs)—are sometimes required to browse the web on some business or school networks. When you configure a proxy server on your system, your system will send your browsing traffic through the proxy server rather than directly to the websites you visit. This allows organizations to perform web filtering and caching, and may be necessary to bypass the firewalls on some networks.

The WPAD protocol is designed to allow organizations to easily provide proxy settings to all devices that connect to the network. The organization can place a WPAD configuration file in a standard place, and when WPAD is enabled, your computer or other device checks to see if there’s WPAD proxy information provided by the network. Your device then automatically uses whatever settings the proxy auto-configuration (PAC) file provides, sending all traffic on the current network through the proxy server.

Windows vs. Other Operating Systems

While WPAD might be a useful feature on some business and school networks, it can cause big problems on public Wi-Fi networks. You don’t want your computer to automatically configure a proxy…

How to Configure a Proxy Server on Android

Android allows you to configure proxy settings for each Wi-Fi network. This is sometimes required to access the Internet on a business or school network, for example. Your browser traffic will be sent through the proxy you configure.

The proxy you configure will be used by Chrome and other web browsers, but may not be used by other apps. Each app developer can choose whether it uses Android’s proxy or not. That’s another good reason why you should use a VPN instead of a proxy. WIth a VPN, you can force all app’s network traffic through the VPN connection. It’s a better way to hide your IP address or access geoblocked websites that aren’t available in your country.

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This process is the same for all modern versions of Android, from Android 4.0 through 7.1. Some device manufacturers change the way Android’s Settings screen looks and functions, so you may find your Wi-Fi or proxy settings in a slightly different location.

Open Android’s Settings app and tap “Wi-Fi” to view a list of Wi-Fi networks.

Long-press the name of the Wi-Fi network you want to change the proxy settings for. Tap “Modify Network” when a menu appears.

If you haven’t already connected to the Wi-Fi network, you’ll need to connect to the Wi-Fi network and enter its passphrase before…