Magnetic field

Disney Is Fulfilling One of Nikola Tesla’s Science Dreams

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You may not have known this, but The Walt Disney Company does much more than animated films and amusement parks. Its Disney Research arm, with divisions all over the world, has the mission to deliver all kinds of scientific and technological innovations. From video processing and robotics to behavioral sciences and materials research, Disney has it covered. Now, its researchers have brought us what we’ve all been waiting for (even without knowing it)—ubiquitous wireless power transfer or, in other words, electricity with no wires.

So, what is it going to take to have your phone charged without a power outlet and a charger? In layman’s terms, an apartment especially built for that purpose with a huge copper pole propped in the middle. In non-layman’s terms, the…

Magnetism helps black holes blow off gas

GRO J1655-40
WIND POWER A black hole steals gas from a normal star in this artist’s illustration of the binary star system GRO J1655-40. Most of the gas is pulled into an inward-spiraling disk (red) around the black hole, but winds driven by magnetic fields blow some gas away.

Black holes are a bit like babies when they eat: Some food goes in, and some gets flung back out into space. Astronomers now say they understand how these meals become so messy — and it’s a trait all black holes share, no matter their size.

Magnetic fields drive the turbulent winds that blow gas away from black holes, says Keigo Fukumura, an astrophysicist at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Va. Using X-rays emitted from a relatively small black hole siphoning gas from a nearby star, Fukumura and colleagues traced the winds flowing from the disk of stellar debris swirling around the black hole. Modeling these winds showed that magnetism, not other means, got the gas moving in just the right way.

The model was previously used to explain the way winds flow around black holes millions of times the mass of the sun. Showing that the model now also works for a smaller stellar-mass black hole suggests that magnetism may drive winds in black holes of all sizes. These results, published online March 6 in Nature Astronomy, could give clues to how black holes consume and expel matter and also to why some galaxies stop forming stars.

Astronomers first proposed that magnetic fields powered the winds around black holes in the 1970s, but the idea has been controversial. Directly observing the winds is impossible. Their existence is inferred by a black hole’s X-ray spectrum — an inventory of light…

5 Strange Facts About the Planet Earth

You know what it’s like: You live somewhere all your life but never realize just how great it is until someone comes to visit. While it’s just a shame we don’t get any visitors to marvel at all the peculiarities of our home planet, here are five facts you might still appreciate.

1. EARTH’S A GIANT DYNAMO.

The core of the Earth is a solid lump of nickel and iron, rotating in a sea of molten iron and nickel. This rotation functions the same way winding up a hand-held generator does, giving Earth an enormous magnetic field that extends up to 50,000 kilometers out into space. This magnetic field is crucial for life on Earth, as without it we would be exposed to the full force of the Sun’s radiation. As well as causing cancers and other radiation-aggravated conditions, the radiation’s sheer force would blow our atmosphere into space, as happened with Mercury, and to a lesser extent, Mars. Instead, charged particles are (mostly) harmlessly deflected away, giving rise to the auroras.

It’s not all good though: Any particles that hit the Earth head-on tend to get trapped in the field and can’t get out. These so-called Van Allen Radiation Belts can pose a hazard for astronauts who leave low Earth orbit.

2. IT’S THE DENSEST PLANET IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

While Earth may not be the biggest planet in the system, it is the biggest rocky planet in the solar system, and also the densest. Therefore, Earth has by far the highest surface gravity of any terrestrial object in the solar system. This is both a blessing and a curse.

The reason for the high density is the large deposits of heavy elements in the Earth’s makeup. Elements such as lead and uranium are much rarer on other worlds, which gives us a huge advantage in the amount and variety of construction materials available here on Earth. The high gravity has also demanded that humans develop the reflexes and endurance necessary to cope with such gravity, meaning we are far more durable than the potential delicately boned, sloth-like creature we could be had we evolved in low gravity.

Unfortunately, that high gravity makes Earth the worst place…