Neurology

An Epilepsy Drug May Have Treatment Potential for Migraines

The migraine—a common but debilitating brain disorder characterized by severe headaches, often with accompanying nausea and visual auras—has perplexed neurologists for decades. There are so many types of migraine, and each person’s physiology responds differently to the few drugs and treatments available.

In the hunt for an umbrella drug to treat all migraines, researchers at the University of British Colombia have investigated a potential new treatment for migraine with aura, which affects about one-third of migraine sufferers: pregabalin (brand name Lyrica). In a class of drugs called gabapentinoids, pregabalin is an anticonvulsant used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. The researchers published their results today in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

Migraines begin in the brain before they’re ever visualized as an aura or felt as an intense headache. Researchers believe migraines are triggered by a brain pattern known as cortical spreading depression, or SD. Though triggers can be numerous, the SD starts in the brain as a “depolarization of neurons in a particular area of the brain,” Stuart Cain, lead author and a neurophysiologist at University of British Columbia, Vancouver tells mental_floss. “This causes a wave of excitation that travels across the brain.”

After the excitation period, there’s a long period of inactivity in which the neurons become stuck in this inactive state. “It’s this wave of inactivity that is actually causing spreading depression, and that causes the migraine aura,” he explains. Though the mechanisms are still not fully understood, they also believe this SD triggers the trigeminal nerve, one of the most widely distributed nerves in the head. That is what causes the headache pain.

As the SD travels slowly through the brain, it may go into the visual cortex and stimulate visual hallucinations, or even the auditory cortex, causing auditory hallucinations….

Do Certain Sounds Enrage You? Neurologists May Know Why

If the sound of a co-worker repeatedly clicking his pen can send you into a flaming furor, take heart: You’re not being hypersensitive, and you’re not alone. Neurologists in the UK have spotted physical differences in the brains of people with this sound-related rage, although whether these differences are the cause or the result of the disorder remains to be seen. The scientists published their findings in the journal Current Biology.

The technical term for that noise-triggered irritation and rage is misophonia (“hatred of sound”). People who have it experience uncontrollable and intense negative emotions after hearing certain repetitive noises like chewing, lip-smacking, pen-clicking, and foot-tapping.

It’s a relatively new concept within the medical community, although people have been complaining of symptoms for a long time. To those who’ve never experienced misophonia, it may sound silly or made-up—which is what many doctors have concluded. Others have categorized it as a form of anxiety or obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The authors of the current paper wondered if the problem might not be psychological but neurological. They recruited 20 British adults with misophonia and 22…