Snow

How Were Roads Cleared Before Snowplows?

Though we’re nearing the beginning of spring, this week has left much of the northeastern United States dealing with the aftermath of a serious bout of snowfall. We take for granted that our roads will be plowed in a timely manner, but it took a long time for us to get to that place.

Let’s throw it back to the 1700s, when towns in the northeastern United States were just beginning to develop. As they grew, so too did the networks that connected them—which, of course, then mandated a postal service. As CityLab noted, during the Great Snow of 1717, the fastest way for mail carriers to travel the snowy roads between Boston and New York was to trade in their horses for a pair of snow shoes and make the trek on foot. Oof.

But year after year of heavy snowfall taught settlers to prepare for the weather. This meant stockpiling goods, founding organizations to aid those who needed coal and firewood, and inventing ski-like runners to attach to carts, which allowed for a sleigh-like method of transport. However, while these devices helped people to travel in inclement weather, it didn’t solve the issue of actually clearing the roads of snow.

This takes us to the 1840s, when the first patents for snowplows were issued (though there’s no record of one being used until around 1862). According to the National Snow & Ice Data Center, “The plow was attached to a cart pulled by a team of horses through the snow-clogged streets.” Though implemented in Wisconsin, the plows quickly grew to be popular…

5 Big Winter Expenses That Could Freeze Your Budget

You never know what might happen when the snow starts to fall. Everyone should have a three- to six-month emergency fund for unexpected expenses, like when four feet of snow caves your roof in — God forbid, of course. While you can’t control life’s curveballs, you can prepare and perhaps avoid big winter expenses. Here’s how.

1. Broken Heating System

Cranking up the heat helps maintain a comfortable temperature in the home, but extreme cold can push a heating system to the max, causing it to quit on you at the worst time.

A basic service call to diagnose a problem can cost upward of $100 — mine was $95 earlier this winter when my system wasn’t working — and this doesn’t include the cost to fix any broken components. (Luckily mine didn’t require anything out of the ordinary. I got away with just the $95.) If your system is older and needs replacing, however, you’ll have to shell out thousands of dollars for a new one.

There’s no way to predict when a heating system will break, but getting a home warranty can help you deal with this unexpected cost. These plans — which cost about $400 to $500 a year — are like an insurance plan for your home’s major systems. If your appliances — water heater, plumbing, electrical, heating, and AC system — need a repair, give your warranty company a call and they’ll send a technician within their network to fix the problem. You just pay a flat $50 to $75 out-of-pocket service fee. If the technician can’t fix the heating system, your warranty company pays the replacement cost.

There are limitations, so make sure you understand how your plan works. For example, your warranty company may only replace the unit if you can show a record of annual tuneups. As such, it’s important to stay on top of things so you don’t restrict yourself when it comes time to take advantage of the warranty.

2. High Gas Bills

Maintaining a warm, cozy home in the winter often requires turning up the heat. But…

Check Out These Cold Weather Activities

When the mercury drops, you might be tempted to stay inside, but what’s the fun in that? Snow, ice, and freezing temperatures may be hard on your heating bill, but there are plenty of fun things to do outside. Just make sure to dress warmly, beware of walking on slippery ice, and take breaks to warm up inside.

1. FROZEN BUBBLES

Bubbles are typically a warm weather activity, but they can be just as fun in freezing temperatures. If it’s cold enough, you can blow soap bubbles and watch them freeze before they pop! Instructables member pi526 has a recipe for homemade bubble liquid, and tips for getting photographs of those neat creations. Depending on the temperature, you might be able to watch ice crystals form while they freeze. Bubbles that come into contact with a surface will freeze if they don’t pop first. They might pop in the process of freezing, which leaves fascinating shapes to study, or they might freeze completely and then break to resemble a broken glass Christmas ornament. Or you might see your bubbles still frozen the next day.

2. BOILING WATER SNOW

The temperature outside has to be pretty cold to make instant snow out of boiling water. If you live where winter temperatures drop way below freezing, you might want to try this. When Yan recorded this video the thermometer read -13°F (-25°C). Bring water to a boil in a pan or coffee cup, and take it outside and throw it in the air. Be sure to throw it away from you, so you don’t get burned. When the rapidly-evaporating water vapor hits the cold air, it turns to snow. It has to be hot…

Take A Look At this Collection Of Wintry Cosplay Photos

(Winter Wonderland Lulu cosplay by Nimdra)

Cosplayers already look cool when they’re strutting around in costume, except for those rare awkward moments when their costumes clash with their surroundings, but posing for cosplay photos in the snow is the coolest!

But cosplaying in the snow requires a different kind of commitment than Con cosplay, and those cosplayers who decide to pose for a themed shoot in the winter know they have to go big.

For example- you can’t ride a horse into a convention (Ellie from The Last Of Us cosplay by EndureSurvivor)

And a horse can complete a cosplay like no prop ever could (Ellie from The Last Of Us cosplay by EndureSurvivor)

Con cosplay also limits your use of props, because nobody wants to carry around a giant, and often fragile, prop all day while they navigate through a sea of bodies (Winter Wonderland Orianna from League Of Legends by Lulu Cosplay)

And Cons don’t properly capture the feeling of the winter holiday season like a trip to a mall all decked out for Christmas, where the decor makes cosplay photos that much more magical (Winter cosplay gathering by ourlivinglegacy)

Many pop culture characters have a winter version or wardrobe (Winter Baroness from G.I. Joe cosplay by Katy DeCobray of the Canadian cosplay team Cobra North)

And some winter cosplay outfits only make sense when the cosplayer is surrounded by snow (Winter Fairy by

Lightning Cosplay)

The snow also makes romantic scenes feel more heartfelt (Inquisitor Lavellan and Empress Celene Valmont from Dragon Age by Eliot Rose and Anthony Cedillo, photography by John Newman)

And it makes battles between typically city bound superfolks look stone cold awesome (Captain America vs. Winter Soldier cosplay by

A-Twins)

But the snow also makes horror scenes…

Watch This Great Video About How to Build an Igloo – Filmed in 1949

The National Film Board of Canada produced this video (originally on film) in 1949 to show how igloos are made in far North Canada.

Using hard-packed snow, two Inuit men skillfully build an igloo as an overnight shelter. The operation takes roughly 90 minutes while their sled dogs patiently wait outside.

The video shows how the packed snow…

A Few Places That Rarely See Snow

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Snowbirds, take note: If a winter season completely devoid of snow sounds like your idea of heaven, these 12 places are calling your name. Though they do get the occasional dusting, once every few decades is definitely more novelty than nuisance.

1. ROME, ITALY

Rome gets a dusting every few years, but heavy snow that sticks happens only once every 25 years or so. When it happened in 2012, the snow did some damage to the Colosseum, forcing officials to close the historic monument for inspection.

2. MIAMI, FLORIDA

In 1977, a cold wave swept through Florida, causing snow flurries for the first and only time in the recorded history of many towns, including Miami. The only time it had happened before was in 1899, and that was in Fort Pierce—130 miles north. While Miamians were charmed by the snow, workers in the state’s citrus and vegetable industry weren’t so thrilled; the snow and cold weather wiped them out, costing at least 150,000 people their jobs.

3. THE SAHARA DESERT

The Sahara isn’t always dry—the desert experiences snow storms on extremely rare occasions, including December 19, 2016, when snow stuck to the sand dunes in Ain Sefra, Algeria, for about a day.

The white stuff ended a 37-year snowless spell for the region; the last time the Sahara saw snow that stuck was February 1979, and it only lasted for 30 minutes.

Though the only recorded snowfall in Sydney’s history happened close to 200 years ago,…

15 Facts About Winter Weather

The start of the winter season is marked by holiday carolers, hot cocoa, and in some parts of the world, blustery weather. Whether you enjoy bundling up in your coziest gear or are already counting down the days until spring, here are 15 facts about what’s happening outdoors this time of year.

1. IT SOMETIMES SNOWS WHERE YOU LEAST EXPECT IT.

You wouldn’t be shocked to see snow on the ground of Siberia or Minnesota when traveling to those places during the winter months. But northern areas don’t have a monopoly on snowfall—the white stuff has been known to touch down everywhere from the Sahara Desert to Hawaii. Even the driest place on Earth isn’t immune. In 2011, the Atacama Desert in Chile received nearly 32 inches of snow thanks to a rare cold front from Antarctica.

2. SNOWFLAKES COME IN ALL SIZES.

The average snowflake ranges from a size slightly smaller than a penny to the width of a human hair. But according to some unverified sources they can grow much larger. Witnesses of a snowstorm in Fort Keogh, Montana in 1887 claimed to see milk-pan sized crystals fall from the sky. If true that would make them the largest snowflakes ever spotted, at around 15 inches wide.

3. A LITTLE WATER CAN ADD UP TO A LOT OF SNOW.

The air doesn’t need to be super moist to produce impressive amounts of snow. Unlike plain rainfall, a bank of fluffy snow contains lots of air that adds to its bulk. That’s why what would have been an inch of rain in the summer equals about 10 inches of snow in the colder months.

4. YOU CAN HEAR THUNDERSNOW WHEN THE CONDITIONS ARE RIGHT.

If you’ve ever heard the unmistakable rumble of thunder in the middle of a snowstorm, that’s not your ears playing tricks on you. It’s likely thundersnow, a rare winter weather phenomenon that’s most common near lakes. When relatively warm columns of air rise from the ground and form turbulent storm clouds in the sky in the winter, there’s potential for thundersnow. A few more factors are still necessary for it to occur, namely air that’s warmer than the cloud cover above it and wind that pushes the warm air upwards. Even then it’s entirely possible to miss thundersnow when it happens right over your head: Lightning is harder to see in the winter and the snow sometimes dampens the thunderous sound.

5. SNOW FALLS AT 1 TO 6 FEET PER SECOND.

At least in the case of snowflakes with broad structures, which act as parachutes. Snow that falls in the form of pellet-like graupel travels to Earth at a much faster rate.

6. IT DOESN’T TAKE LONG FOR THE TEMPERATURE TO DROP.

Don’t take mild conditions in the…