Speech

Why being bilingual helps keep your brain fit

Most people in the world speak more than one language, suggesting the human brain has evolved to work in multiple tongues. If so, asks Gaia Vince, are those who speak only one language missing out?

In a cafe in south London, two construction workers are engaged in cheerful banter, tossing words back and forth. Their cutlery dances during more emphatic gesticulations and they occasionally break off into loud guffaws. They are discussing a woman, that much is clear, but the details are lost on me. It’s a shame, because their conversation looks fun and interesting, especially to a nosy person like me. But I don’t speak their language.

Out of curiosity, I interrupt them to ask what they are speaking. With friendly smiles, they both switch easily to English, explaining that they are South Africans and had been speaking Xhosa. In Johannesburg, where they are from, most people speak at least five languages, says one of them, Theo Morris. For example, Morris’ mother’s language is Sotho, his father’s is Zulu, he learned Xhosa and Ndebele from his friends and neighbours, and English and Afrikaans at school. “I went to Germany before I came here, so I also speak German,” he adds.

Was it easy to learn so many languages?

“Yes, it’s normal,” he laughs.

He’s right. Around the world, more than half of people – estimates vary from 60 to 75 per cent – speak at least two languages. Many countries have more than one official national language – South Africa has 11. People are increasingly expected to speak, read and write at least one of a handful of ‘super’ languages, such as English, Chinese, Hindi, Spanish or Arabic, as well. So to be monolingual, as many native English speakers are, is to be in the minority, and perhaps to be missing out.

Multilingualism has been shown to have many social, psychological and lifestyle advantages. Moreover, researchers are finding a swathe of health benefits from speaking more than one language, including faster recovery from strokes and delayed onset of dementia.

To be monolingual, as many native English speakers are, is to be in the minority, and perhaps to be missing out

Could it be that the human brain evolved to be multilingual – that those who speak only one language are not exploiting their full potential? And in a world that is losing languages faster than ever – at the current rate of one a fortnight, half our languages will be extinct by the end of the century – what will happen if the current rich diversity of languages disappears and most of us end up speaking only one?

I am sitting in a laboratory, headphones on, looking at pictures of snowflakes on a computer. As each pair of snowflakes appears, I hear a description of one of them through the headphones. All I have to do is decide which snowflake is being described. The only catch is that the descriptions are in a completely invented language called Syntaflake.

It’s part of an experiment by Panos Athanasopoulos, an ebullient Greek with a passion for languages. Professor of psycholinguistics and bilingual cognition at Lancaster University, he’s at the forefront of a new wave of research into the bilingual mind. As you might expect, his lab is a Babel of different nationalities and languages – but no one here grew up speaking Syntaflake.

The task is profoundly strange and incredibly difficult. Usually, when interacting in a foreign language, there are clues to help you decipher the meaning. The speaker might point to the snowflake as they speak, use their hands to demonstrate shapes or their fingers to count out numbers, for example. Here I have no such clues and, it being a made-up language, I can’t even rely on picking up similarities to languages I already know.

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After a time, though, I begin to feel a pattern might be emerging with the syntax and sounds. I decide to be mathematical about it and get out pen and paper to plot any rules that emerge, determined not to ‘fail’ the test.

The experience reminds me of a time I arrived in a rural town a few hours outside Beijing and was forced to make myself understood in a language I could neither speak nor read, among people for whom English was similarly alien. But even then, there had been clues. Now, without any accompanying human interaction, the rules governing the sounds I’m hearing remain elusive, and at the end of the session I have to admit defeat. I join Athanasopoulos for a chat while my performance is being analysed by his team.

What will happen if the current rich diversity of languages disappears and most of us end up speaking only one?

Glumly, I recount my difficulties at learning the language, despite my best efforts. But it appears that was where I went wrong: “The people who perform best on this task are the ones who don’t care at all about the task and just want to get it over as soon as possible. Students and teaching staff who try to work it out and find a pattern always do worst,” he says.

“It’s impossible in the time given to decipher the rules of the language and make sense of what’s being said to you. But your brain is primed to work it out subconsciously. That’s why, if you don’t think about it, you’ll do OK in the test – children do the best.”

Ancestral exchanges

The first words ever uttered may have been as far back as 250,000 years ago, once our ancestors stood up on two legs and freed the ribcage from weight-bearing tasks, allowing fine nerve control of breathing and pitch to develop. And when humans had got one language, it wouldn’t have been long before we had many.

Language evolution can be compared to biological evolution, but whereas genetic change is driven by environmental pressures, languages change and develop through social pressures. Over time, different groups of early humans would have found themselves speaking different languages. Then, in order to communicate with other groups – for trade, travel and so on – it would have been necessary for some members of a family or band to speak other tongues.

We can get some sense of how prevalent multilingualism may have been from the few hunter-gatherer people who survive today. “If you look at modern hunter-gatherers, they are almost all multilingual,” says Thomas Bak, a cognitive neurologist who studies the science of languages at the University of Edinburgh. “The rule is that one mustn’t marry anyone in the same tribe or clan to have a child – it’s taboo. So every single child’s mum and dad speak a different language.”

For Indigenous Australians, who speak more than 130 indigenous languages are still spoken, multilingualism is part of the landscape. “You will be walking and talking with someone, and then you might cross a small river and suddenly your companion will switch to another language,” says Bak. “People speak the language of the earth.”

This is true elsewhere, too. “Consider in Belgium: you take a train in Liège, the announcements are in French first. Then, pass through Loewen, where the announcements will be in Dutch first, and then in Brussels it reverts back to French first.”

This idea that you gain a new personality with every language you speak, that you act differently when speaking different languages, is a profound one

Being so bound up with identity, language is also deeply political. The emergence of European nation states and the growth of imperialism during the 19th century meant it was regarded as disloyal to speak anything other than the one national language. This perhaps contributed to the widely held opinion – particularly in Britain and the US – that bringing up children to be bilingual was harmful to their health and to society more generally.

There were warnings that bilingual children would be confused by two languages, have lower intelligence, low self-esteem, behave in deviant ways, develop a split personality and even become schizophrenic. It is a view that persisted until very recently, discouraging many immigrant parents from using their own mother tongue to speak to their children, for instance. This is in spite of a 1962 experiment, ignored for decades, which showed that bilingual children did better than monolinguals in both verbal and non-verbal intelligence tests.

However, research in the last decade by neurologists, psychologists and linguists, using the latest brain-imaging tools, is revealing a swathe of cognitive benefits for bilinguals. It’s all to do with how our ever-flexible minds learn to multitask.

Ask me in English what my favourite food is, and I will picture myself in London choosing from the options I enjoy there. But ask me in French, and I transport myself to Paris, where the options I’ll choose from are different. So the same deeply personal question gets a different answer depending on the language in which you’re asking me. This idea that you gain a new personality with every language you speak, that you act differently when speaking different languages, is a profound one.

Brain training

Athanasopoulos and his colleagues have been studying the capacity for language to change people’s perspectives. In one experiment, English and German speakers were shown videos of people moving, such as a woman walking towards her car or a man cycling to the supermarket. English speakers focus on the action and typically describe the scene as “a woman is walking” or “a man is cycling”. German speakers, on the other hand, have a more holistic worldview and will include the goal of the action: they might say (in German) “a woman walks towards her car” or “a man cycles towards the supermarket”.

Each language gives you a whole new lifestyle, a whole new shade of meaning

Part of this is due to the…

How Talking to Yourself Out Loud Can Help Your Brain and Show High Intelligence

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While talking to yourself is often regarded a social no-no, possibly hinting at psychological problems, new research suggests that point of view may be completely wrong. Scientists at Bangor University in the UK found talking to yourself out loud is not only be helpful but may indicate a higher level of intelligence.

The study’s participants were given written instructions and told to either read them out loud or silently. After measuring the concentration and how participants performed on tasks, researchers concluded that people were more concentrated and absorbed what they read better when doing so out loud.

As the study’s co-author and psychologist Dr. Paloma Mari-Beffa…

If You Only Focus on What You Say, You Don’t Really Understand What Communication Is

Communication is the backbone of human civilization. Without it the world would become bizarre. Humans survived for so long because they developed the most important skills that let them overpower other species.1 Since the ancient times to the present times communication played a key role in deciding the fate of humans.

Today also communication is very vital especially looking at the need of communication in corporate culture, workplaces and various industries etc.

An effective communication directly relates to how well you have conveyed or received a message from other person be it via phone, email or social media. Success of every individual directly relates to his/her ability to effectively communicate both verbally and non-verbally. Both verbal and non-verbal communications are an important part of human life because it shapes an individual’s interaction with others in interpersonal relationships, business, finance as well as personal success. Not only this but communication plays a very vital role in an individual’s physical and psychological well-being.

So the first step to enhance positive communication and nurture relationships an individual has to start understanding the various aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication and also the vital role both forms of communication plays in successful interactions with others.2

Verbal communication helps clarification.

Verbal communication is any kind of communication that involves words, signal, spoken or written. Conversation with your friends, colleagues, seniors at college, office or in a meeting, reading newspaper in the morning or watching morning news or texting via mobile are all different kinds of verbal communication. Verbal communications is generally based on a language that varies in different geographic areas.

Verbal communication is required to inform other individuals of our need or to inform or impart knowledge. In verbal communication the most important aspect is clarification. This is because clarification helps in resolving issues where an individual don’t articulate himself clearly or his words…

Give Your Products the Power of Speech Using Amazon Polly

Would you like to get your products more deeply integrated into your customers’ daily lives?

Of course, what business wouldn’t.

An important first step towards making that happen is to give your products the ability to interact with your customers on their own terms. And the easiest way to do that is through natural speech.

The Power of Spoken Language

Human beings have been speaking to each other since the dawn of time. Speech is our most natural form of communication — and one of the reasons why we’ve been so successful as a species.

So let’s dive into what it takes to give your applications and devices the ability to speak in a manner that’s natural and comfortable to your customers.

Recent advancements in artificial intelligence have made this super easy, so it’ll be quick.

Got 5 Minutes?

This short guide will walk you through converting written text into a spoken audio file using the Amazon Polly text-to-speech service.

Note: Amazon Polly only provides a one-way speech capability — converting written text into spoken audio (text-to-speech). If you want to be able to understand spoken audio as well, you’ll additionally need a speech-to-text service, like Amazon Lex.

An easy on ramp for A.I.

This is a how-to guide intended for developers or tech-savvy business leaders looking for a proven entry point into A.I.-powered business systems.

The scripts we’ll be using are simple and easy to read — Amazon’s SDK has already done most of the heavy lifting for you.

So let’s get right to it…

What You’ll Need

Right off the bat, let’s get the initial requirements knocked out.

Download the source repository.

To start, let’s pull down the source files. (You’ll need a git client installed on your computer for this step.)

And for a change of pace, we’re going to use PHP for these scripts. You’ll need a command line interpreter for PHP installed and Composer.

Note: If you prefer a different programming language, AWS provides SDKs for nearly every major language — and the scripts are very easy to port over.

Move to the directory you want to use for this demo and run the following commands in a terminal…

# Download source repository & install dependencies git clone https://github.com/10xNation/amazon-polly-demo-php.git cd amazon-polly-demo-php composer install 

Feel free to leave the terminal window open — you’ll need it soon.

Create an AWS account.

If you don’t already have an AWS account, go ahead and set one up.

Verify user permissions.

And if you aren’t using an administrator-level user account for AWS, you’ll need to make sure your account has full control over the Polly service.

Enter your credentials.

You’ll need to enter your API credentials into the script files. And you can do that by opening speak_text.php and speak_ssml.php and editing the following section in both files…

 'credentials' => [ // Change these to your respective AWS credentials  'key' => 'XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX',  'secret' => 'XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX',  ] 

Language heard, but never spoken, by young babies bestows a hidden benefit

mother and baby laughing and playing
Babies who heard Korean spoken in their first six months of life were better able to pick up the language later as adults, a study finds. The results show how early language exposure patterns the brain in ways that may not be revealed for decades, if ever.

The way babies learn to speak is nothing short of breathtaking. Their brains are learning the differences between sounds, rehearsing mouth movements and mastering vocabulary by putting words into meaningful context. It’s a lot to fit in between naps and diaper changes.

A recent study shows just how durable this early language learning is. Dutch-speaking adults who were adopted from South Korea as preverbal babies held on to latent Korean language skills, researchers report online January 18 in Royal Society Open Science. In the first months of their lives, these people had already laid down the foundation for speaking Korean — a foundation that persisted for decades undetected, only revealing itself later in careful laboratory tests.

Researchers tested how well people could learn to identify and speak tricky Korean sounds. “For Korean listeners, these sounds are easy to distinguish, but for second-language…