Therapy

9 Up-Close Scientific Images from the Wellcome Image Awards

Each year, the Wellcome Image Awards highlight some of the most fascinating scientific images from around the world, as chosen by a panel of experts from the fields of science communications and medicine. The awards go to photographers and researchers who create “informative, striking and technically excellent images that communicate significant aspects of healthcare and biomedical science,” according to the Wellcome Trust, a biomedical research charity based in the UK. Here are nine of this year’s winning images:

ZEBRAFISH EYE AND NEUROMASTS

Ingrid Lekk and Steve Wilson, University College London

In this 4-day-old zebrafish embryo, a certain gene expressed in the lens of the eye and other parts of the visual system glows red when it’s activated. You can see the lens of the eye, the head, and neuromasts (those red dots around the rim of the image) glowing red, while the nervous system glows blue.

BLOOD VESSELS OF THE AFRICAN GREY PARROT

This image was created using a 3D reconstruction of a euthanized parrot. It models the system of blood vessels in the parrot’s head and neck down to the capillary level.

INTRAOCULAR LENS IRIS CLIP

Mark Bartley, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

Iris clips can treat nearsightedness, cataracts, and other eye issues. This photo shows an iris clip fitting on the eye of a 70-year-old patient. He regained nearly all his vision after the surgery.

BRAIN-ON-A-CHIP

Collin…

Questions remain about the benefits of taking testosterone

testosterone test-tube
As men age, testosterone levels in the blood tend to drop. Replacing the hormone through testosterone treatments brings an assortment of benefits and potential problems.

LOW T

As a treatment for the ailments of aging, testosterone’s benefits are hit or miss.

For men with low testosterone, the hormone therapy is helpful for some health problems, but not so much for others, researchers report in five papers published February 21 in JAMA and JAMA Internal Medicine. Testosterone therapy was good for the bones, but didn’t help memory. It remedied anemia and was linked to a lower risk of heart attack and stroke. But treatment also upped the amount of plaque in the arteries, an early indicator of heart attack risk, researchers report.

“It’s a very confusing area,” says Caleb Alexander, a prescription drug researcher at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, who was not involved with the work. “Testosterone very well may help men feel more energized,” he says. “But the real question is: At what cost?”

As men age, their testosterone levels tend to drop. Researchers have suggested that boosting the levels back up to normal might counter some signs of aging, including memory loss and weakened bones. But the risks of such treatment — especially the cardiovascular risks — remain unclear, Alexander says. Dozens of studies have tackled the question, but the results “point in lots of different directions,” he says.

Despite lack of clarity on testosterone therapy’s safety and benefits, the number of men taking the hormone has soared in recent years. One 2014 analysis estimated that 2.2 million men filled testosterone…

An Epilepsy Drug May Have Treatment Potential for Migraines

The migraine—a common but debilitating brain disorder characterized by severe headaches, often with accompanying nausea and visual auras—has perplexed neurologists for decades. There are so many types of migraine, and each person’s physiology responds differently to the few drugs and treatments available.

In the hunt for an umbrella drug to treat all migraines, researchers at the University of British Colombia have investigated a potential new treatment for migraine with aura, which affects about one-third of migraine sufferers: pregabalin (brand name Lyrica). In a class of drugs called gabapentinoids, pregabalin is an anticonvulsant used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. The researchers published their results today in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

Migraines begin in the brain before they’re ever visualized as an aura or felt as an intense headache. Researchers believe migraines are triggered by a brain pattern known as cortical spreading depression, or SD. Though triggers can be numerous, the SD starts in the brain as a “depolarization of neurons in a particular area of the brain,” Stuart Cain, lead author and a neurophysiologist at University of British Columbia, Vancouver tells mental_floss. “This causes a wave of excitation that travels across the brain.”

After the excitation period, there’s a long period of inactivity in which the neurons become stuck in this inactive state. “It’s this wave of inactivity that is actually causing spreading depression, and that causes the migraine aura,” he explains. Though the mechanisms are still not fully understood, they also believe this SD triggers the trigeminal nerve, one of the most widely distributed nerves in the head. That is what causes the headache pain.

As the SD travels slowly through the brain, it may go into the visual cortex and stimulate visual hallucinations, or even the auditory cortex, causing auditory hallucinations….

This How Talk Therapy Changes Our Brains for the Better

Talk therapy is often considered the soft option when it comes to mental health treatment. Yet millions of patients and numerous studies testify to its long-term effectiveness, and now researchers say one type of talk therapy can produce visible changes in patients’ brains. They published their research in the journal Translational Psychiatry.

One of the best-known and most successful techniques is called Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, or CBT. People in CBT learn skills that allow them to challenge and disrupt unpleasant and negative thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. CBT is especially useful for people experiencing psychosis, a state of mind in which it becomes hard—if not impossible—to tell what’s real and what’s not. CBT for psychosis (CBTp) gives patients the tools to reframe their troubling thoughts and help calm themselves down.

For the study, researchers recruited 22 people who were already on medication to help with…