Water

Would You Drink Sewage Beer? New Brew Uses Treated Sewage Water.

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Bottoms up! A Southern Calfornia brewery is taking its beer from toilet to tap.

San Diego’s Stone Brewing has started making a beer using treated sewage water. The beer, called Full Circle Pale Ale, was recently unveiled for a tasting at their brewery. The beer was made using the recycled water from Pure Water San Diego, a program that has set out to provide one-third of San Diego’s water supply through its treatment system by 2035.

Stone Brewing logo, Fair Use usage
Stone Brewing logo, Fair Use usage

Stone Brewery is one of the largest (top 10) craft breweries in the United States and has made a concerted effort towards environmental sustainability. By brewing Ful Circle Pale Ale, which will be available for sale soon, the brewery is testing consumer demand for a process with clear environmental benefits. The result, however, may be less about taste buds (water doesn’t dramatically change the flavor of beer) and more about human psychology.

Would You Drink the Beer?

When you read that the Full Circle Pale Ale was made using treated sewage water, your first reaction was probably not, “That sounds delicious!” As earlier pieces in Big Think have discussed (“Our Sense of Disgust Is Holding Back Life-Saving Innovation“), the thought of drinking treated sewage water often triggers a sense of disgust–even though…

Flush Your “Weight” Out! 10 Food and Drinks That Really Help To Ease Your Water Weight!

Yes, you look like you have gained 10 pounds during sleep.

Have you ever got a panic attack when you saw the drastic increased number on your scale, and then realise you lose all those weight in just a couple days? You might have thought you got some weird metabolic disease, but this symptom could have simply just caused by water. What you have gained is not fat weight, but water weight.

What is Water Weight? Does That Mean I am Fat?

Different from fat weight, you could gain 2 to 4 pounds of water weight in the course of a day. It is basically just a shift of your body’s fluid status. It could be caused by multiple of reasons, including premenstrual symptoms, lack of dietary protein, excess consumption of salt, side effect of medication, or even weather. For most of the times this gain will just last for a few days and is unharmful to your body.

So How to Flush That Out?

In case you would like to control your water weight so that you won’t suddenly look swelled for a couple days, making some changes in your diet could be a very effective way. Here are 10 diuretic food and drinks that could help you flush out the excess water weight in your body.

Water kills water- Drinking “the right amount” is key

This might sound very counterintuitive,…

Readers dispute starfishes’ water-swirling abilities

Dinosaurs and other creatures were largely wiped out 66 million years ago from an asteroid impact, volcanic eruptions or maybe a mix of the two, Thomas Sumner reported in “Devastation detectives” (SN: 2/4/17, p. 16), in the Science News special report “Dino Doomsday.”

Online reader Mike van Horn wondered if the timing of the volcanic eruptions, which happened for hundreds of thousands of years before and after the asteroid impact, could have allowed marine organisms to adapt to increasingly acidic oceans.

Scientists don’t know if bouts of volcanic eruptions helped marine critters survive the harsh post-impact environment. But studies of ocean acidification’s effects on marine organisms living today hint that adaptation may not have been viable, Sumner says. In a recent experiment, armor-plated phytoplankton regained their shell-making abilities after researchers dunked them in acidified water. But those gains disappeared after further exposure (SN: 8/6/16, p. 8).

Swirling controversy

Starfish larvae use hairlike cilia to stir up whorls of water, called eddies, and suck in prey, Emily Conover reported in “Baby starfish on the hunt whip up whirlpools” (SN: 2/4/17, p. 14).

Reader George von Dassow disputes the reported finding. “Unfortunately, [the researchers’] work is based on a well-documented and well-understood artifact, which biologists who study the behavior of microorganisms often work hard to avoid,” wrote von Dassow, a developmental biologist at the University…

Remember the Outcast Toddler Drinking from a Water Bottle? You Should See Him Now.

If you saw that horrible photograph of a tiny, emaciated Nigerian boy drinking from an aid worker’s water bottle a few years ago, you likely haven’t forgotten it. His limbs looked like sticks and each of his ribs can easily be counted – and the story behind his abandonment was even more sad: his people believed him to be a witch and cast him out on his own to die, even though he was only a toddler.

Heartbreaking.

He’d been surviving…

Can You Tell the Difference Between Club Soda, Seltzer, and Sparkling Water?

They all sparkle. They all bubble. And they’re all water. But club soda, seltzer, and sparkling water are not interchangeable. Here’s what you need to know the next time you reach for one.

Club soda is just water with a few add-ins: carbon dioxide for carbonation and “mineral-like” ingredients such as sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate, and potassium sulfate. It’s unflavored, other than the slightly mineral-y taste, which is why club soda is a great cocktail mixer.

Why is it called club soda? According to Culinary Lore, the beverage was once called Club Soda (note the proper noun). The water was—and still is—trademarked in Great Britain and Ireland by Dublin-based beverage company Cantrell & Cochrane. In 1896, C&C lost a lawsuit against a Jamaican company that had used the term “club soda,” which is probably why it remains a generic…

NASA Is Looking to Make a Mobile Water Factory on the Moon

Water has long been the limiting factor for humans in space. But now, NASA is developing a rover that can make water on the Moon. Such a capability will be necessary for any serious attempt at the permanent settlement of Mars, or any other long-term space voyage. If successful, it will inaugurate a new, critical area in space exploration, where resources from other worlds can be harnessed and used.

Presently, everything we use in space is made on Earth. Consider the big, visible parts of human exploration of the solar system, rockets like the Space Launch System (SLS), under construction and set for its maiden voyage in 2018. There’s also the Orion capsule, tested previously and set to fly atop SLS (without astronauts). Then there’s work on habitats: Scientists are currently working on manufacturing artificial habitats for the International Space Station, but soon will be working on one for the Martian surface. A huge part of this kind of pioneering the solar system, however, concerns not just what we bring to other worlds, but what we leave behind. The Lunar Resource Prospector is the first big step in striking that balance.

The real problem of colonization is mass. It’s very expensive to send something to space, and the heavier it is, the more it costs. It takes hundreds of kilograms on the launch pad to put a single kilogram on the surface of Mars, and Martian settlers will need many, many metric tons of commodities to survive. Practically speaking, they can’t take everything they will need from Earth. To colonize the solar system, they will have to learn how to use the resources of the solar system.

The good news is that everything in the solar system is a potential resource for settlers. In-situ resource utilization, or ISRU, is the concept of mining resources on other worlds and turning them into useful commodities, as well as recycling waste created on other worlds. (Waste conversion solves two problems: It creates new useful things and eliminates garbage. The ISS dumps its garbage, allowing it to burn up in the atmosphere. But surface dwellers on Mars won’t have such a convenient disposal service.)

Energy is an important part of ISRU, and from a settlement perspective, energy is very cheap. The Sun is a giant fusion reactor in the sky, after all, and to harness it, all pioneers need are a few solar panels that they bring from home. Those panels will provide energy for a very long time—energy that can be used for ISRU.

Mars is the most likely current spot for future human settlement, so consider what resources might be available there: Settlers could extract oxygen from Mars’s soil, known as regolith. Water could be extracted from volatiles in the soil, essentially baking them off. There is also carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere. Combine carbon with electrolyzed water and settlers can make methane, which could be used as fuel.

Settlers won’t need to take building material to Mars; they could easily glue soil together and make bricks. Metals could also be extracted from Martian regolith to build things. Because Mars is rich with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, settlers could even make plastic. What would they build first? Probably greenhouses, for starters. Growing crops for food will also be useful for water purification and oxygen generation.

For…