Water

Where the Water in the Devil’s Kettle Goes

devils-kettle

In Judge C. R. Magney State Park in Minnesota, there exists a natural phenomenon along the Brule River known as the Devil’s Kettle- a waterfall that splits in two, with one half falling about 50 feet into the river below and continuing on its merry way towards Lake Superior and the other half falling into a large hole in the ground that seems to go nowhere. In fact, local legend posits that anything thrown into the Devil’s Kettle will never be seen again. People trying to disprove this have thrown everything from boxes of ping pong balls to giant logs into the hole to see where they end up, with nothing ever seeming to emerge anywhere nearbye. So where is the stuff thrown in going?

For many years, the most popular hypotheses put forward were that the water falling into the hole either flowed into a hidden underground limestone cave carved into the rock by eons of flowing water or it flowed into a lava tube.

If you’re unfamiliar, a lava tube is pretty much what it sounds like- a large tube formed by flowing lava as it cools. In a nutshell, as the top layer cools and hardens, lava underneath potentially continues to flow for some time until the source of the lava stops. This can lead to that inner layer of lava draining and leaving behind a large empty tube in a lava rock shell.

Thus, the hypothesis is that the falling water cut through the surface rock at some point and fell into an ancient lava tube formed at the same time as the rest of the volcanic rocks in the area.

This sounds perfectly plausible, but the issue is that while rhyolite, which forms the bedrock on top of which the river system is located, is a volcanic rock, it doesn’t form lava tubes. And as for the basalt layer underneath, while this can form lava tubes, this particular type is flood basalt, which comes up from fissures, rather than flowing down from a volcano. Thus, flood basalt is incredibly unlikely to create lava tubes (more typically just creating large seepage sheets of rock) and no such lava tubes have ever been discovered in the area, despite many known lava beds in the region.

As for the other popular hypothesis, this is that there perhaps is a large underground limestone cave or river system the water drains into. However, the nearest limestone deposits to the park are hundreds of miles away and rhyolite is much too hard of a rock for such a cave system to likely have formed in it.

Despite these two hypothesis thought to be unlikely by most, they were long the best guesses simply because nothing anyone ever threw into the hole ever…

Solar Paint is Cheap, Revolutionary Future for Clean Energy

Researchers have developed a solar paint that can absorb water vapor and split it to generate hydrogen – the cleanest source of energy.

The paint contains a newly developed compound that acts like silica gel, which is used in sachets to absorb moisture and keep food, medicines and electronics fresh and dry.

But unlike silica gel, the new material, synthetic molybdenum-sulphide, also acts as a semi-conductor and catalyses the splitting of water atoms into hydrogen and oxygen.

RELATED: California Sun Produces So Much Power That Electricity Prices Turn Negative

Lead researcher Dr. Torben Daeneke, from RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, said: “We found that mixing the compound with titanium oxide particles leads to a sunlight-absorbing paint that produces hydrogen fuel…

Engineer Creates Green Oasis by Growing Glaciers in the Desert

This engineer has come up with an awe-inspiring method of providing freshwater to his village during the dry season.

Sonam Wangchuck is an engineer who lives in Ladakh: a village that sits 11,500 feet up in the southern Himalayas.

Since the village depends on mountain glacial runoff as their primary source of freshwater, Ladakh struggles with drought in the springtime. Combined with the effects of climate change, the region has often been at the mercy of nature.

WATCH: People Come From Around the World to See This Dad’s Ice Castles

That is, until Sonam created the village’s first ice stupa – also known as an ice pyramid, or an artificial glacier.

Sonam created a pipeline that ran from the freshwater sources over a mile…

How to Eat and Exercise to Prevent Muscle Cramp?

Muscle cramps are one of the hardest cramps to deal with. We need our legs to carry us throughout our entire day and a muscle cramp can take us off our feet and interrupt our usual flow. So here are my recommendations on how to stop muscle cramps immediately and build stronger legs and butt so that you can stop future muscle cramps from occurring.

1. The Immediate Cure

When we are experiencing a muscle cramp it’s often due to: dehydration, overuse of the muscle, and lack of using the muscle. The quickest way to cure your muscle cramps is to immediately massage the area and stretch those muscles. Once you are able to move your leg once again, head to the medicine cabinet and take an appropriate dose of anti-inflammatory medicine, such as Ibuprofen.

2. Diet Helps

The next best step is to look at your diet! The top two contributors to leg cramps are dehydration and a lack of potassium. You should definitely increase your water intake. Especially if you drink a lot of coffee and sugary sodas, both of those dehydrate you quickly! If you struggle with opting for water to drink, take it slowly and increase it each week.

Begin by drinking your favorite coffees and sodas at meal times only. You must drink water in between meals and even create a reward system of “If I drink 3 glasses of water between breakfast and lunch, I can have that latte with my lunch!”.

After each week, find ways to increase your water intake and swap out those caffeinated and sugary drinks more often until you find yourself predominantly drinking water. Water intake is important and changing our habits takes time and diligence!

Potassium is something we often lack and bananas are a fruit packed with potassium. However, if you are like me and do not like bananas, there are other options for getting plenty of potassium. Those foods are:

  • dark leafy greens

By increasing your potassium intake, you decrease your chances of leg cramps!

Try to work on your leg muscle to prevent cramps in long-term?

We can’t talk about building stronger legs and…

Limitless Hydrogen Energy? Breakthrough Seen in Separating H from H2O

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Hydrogen is known to have the potential to become an important source of energy. And there’s an abundant supply of it, in our water, if we can just find a low-cost, efficient way of getting the oxygen in H2O to let go of it. The University of Houston (UH) has just announced that they may have just found it.

Splitting the hydrogen and oxygen in water is accomplished using a process called “water electrolysis” in which both the hydrogen and oxygen molecules separate into individual gasses via separate “evolution reactions.” Each evolution reaction is induced by an electrode in the presence of a catalyst.

electrolysis

Water can also be split using photocatalysis that uses solar power directly instead of electricity, but it’s less efficient since water only absorbs a small range of the light spectrum.

It’s been the lack of an efficient, low-cost catalyst for the oxygen molecules that’s been holding the full-scale extraction of hydrogen back. Up until now, oxygen catalysts have been based on scarce, expensive “noble” metals such as iridium, platinum, or ruthenium.

nobel metals

This is a problem that has been thwarting the full-scale commercial extraction of hydrogen for energy for some time, and UH isn’t the only entity searching for a replacement. Just last spring, the Canadian Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the University of Toronto announced the discovery of a new oxygen…

Gravity Defying Drips of a Bike Pump Controlled Fountain

People love to see a trick that fools their senses. This truism was in play at the Crash Space booth this weekend as [Steve Goldstein] and [Kevin Jordan] showed off a drip fountain controlled by a bike pump.

These optical illusion drip fountains use strobing light to seemingly freeze dripping water in mid-air. We’ve seen this before several times (the work of Hackaday alum [Mathieu Stephan] comes to mind) but never with a user input quite as delightful as a bike pump. It’s connected to an air pressure sensor that is monitored by the Arduino that strobes the lights. As someone works the pump, the falling droplets appear to slow, stop, and then begin flowing against gravity.

Sadly this phenomenon is quite difficult to record in a video since the latency of our vision is integral for the trick to work. The frame…

These Blobs May Be the Future of Plastic Water Bottles

These funny looking globs might spell the end of plastic bottles polluting the ocean.

The Ooho! is an “edible water bottle” made entirely out of sustainable packaging.

Designed by London-based startup Skipping Rocks Labs, the biodegradable container is made out of a thin, flexible membrane comprised of sodium alginate – a natural derivative of brown algae – and calcium chloride. It can be either ripped open, allowing the individual to drink the liquid out of the membrane, or simply consumed whole.

Each glob contains 250 ml each, costing only about 2 cents to make.

RELATED: Man Creates ‘Shoes That Grow’ So Poor Kids Don’t Outgrow Them

Skipping Rocks already designed the Ooho! in 2014,…

Guy Hides Camera In Bucket Of Water To See Who Comes To Drink, And Result Doesn’t Disappoint

A video showing desert critters secretly filmed approaching a water bucket to quench their thirst is going viral. We see different creatures, from bees, to chickens, to a donkey and a rabbit. The video was uploaded by John Wells from The Field Lab, a Southwest Texas alternative energy and sustainable living field laboratory.

“I was pleasantly surprised during the edit to see that George [the rabbit]…

Need Help After A Big Night out? Here Are 20+ Best and Worst Food To Cure Hangover!

No one likes a miserable morning after having a couple of drinks the previous night. The effects of overindulgence could be discomforting. However science has come to our aid again since there are certain foods that can make you feel better and cure your hangover. Here are 20+ best and worst food to cure hangover.

Chicken noodles soup

You may not have heard this but a good cup of noodles can restock the water and sodium levels in the body. Of course chicken would give the liver a much-needed boost since it contains cysteine.

Nuts

Nuts like walnuts and almonds could slow the absorption of alcohol and stop a hangover , they do have fats and protein that could keep those nasty next morning symptoms of a hangover at bay.

When you munch on cucumbers, you are eating what is filled with sodium, a hangover-fighting electrolyte that could reduce the effect of alcohol.

Oatmeal has relevant nutrients like iron, magnesium and calcium. All these add to the neutralizing power of oats against a hangover. Oats raise your blood sugar levels and offer you an instant energy boost.

Miso soup

A Japanese food like traditional chicken noodle could be a great remedy for your hangover as it both restocks your sodium levels and rehydrates you.

Eggs

Eggs has cysteine and taurine, amino acids that boosts liver function and breaks down the yucky headache-causing chemical after the liver breaks down ethanol.

Soy protein…

Having a Hard Time In The Toilet? No Worries These 10 Food Can Help You With It!

It’s that uneasy feeling you have to deal with at one point or another. The struggle of having bouts of irregular bowel movement or loose stools can be stressful.

However, common it happens to you or others, we have to admit that a band-aid solution seems right every moment. Have you been advised to take power drinks containing electrolytes to prevent dehydration, or maybe you immediately picked one of those ripe bananas on the table when the problem started to kick in?

Well then, whether constipation or diarrhea is becoming ever-present or not, it’s time to check on your diet, seriously. In most cases, consciously improving on your fiber intake is key to a healthy digestive system. In fact, the American Dietetic Association advises that the daily diet of women between 19 to 50, should have 25 grams of fiber while men in this age bracket must consume 38 grams.

What Does Fiber Do to My Body?

Both soluble and insoluble fiber helps in normalizing our stools and prevents the gastrointestinal tract’s movement from immobility. Unlike fats, carbohydrates, and proteins, fiber is not digested in our bodies. It remains whole while passing through our stomach, small intestine, and the colon. It is insoluble fiber that makes the stool bulky to go through usually, to prevent constipation, while soluble fiber absorbs the excess water to prevent diarrhea or loose stools.

But that’s not all there is in fiber. It can lower the levels of cholesterol, aids diabetes patients from blood sugar spikes, and keeps you feeling full for a longer time with relatively lower calories.

Top 10 Foods Rich in Fiber

Let’s stick to all natural. Ultimately, this would make your bowel movement issues go down the flush. Here are the high-fiber foods that make you poop:

An apple a day, keeps the doctor away, as repeatedly said. A medium-sized apple contains 4.4 grams of fiber too.

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