6 Ways Aircraft Changed the Course of the Vietnam War

6 Ways Aircraft Changed the Course of the Vietnam War.
The “War to End All Wars” didn’t exactly do so; neither did the international conflicts after it.
Its arsenal included everything from stealth jets used for reconnaissance, such as the Lockheed YO-3 “Quiet Star,” to bombers including the AC-130 Spectre, one of the deadliest aircraft ever, to fighter jets including the Martin B-57B, which was the first American jet to be used in Vietnam.
Aerial attacks may have weakened North Vietnamese and Communist forces, but they also served to strengthen their resolve.
There’s a reason Vietnam is referred to as The Helicopter War.
With their ability to fly at low altitudes while holding heavy weaponry, including machine guns and missiles, they made targeted strikes easier.
It’s the one that really hacks into the air and makes that whomp noise,” explains former U.S. pilot Richard Jellerson, who wrote and produced the 2001 documentary The Personal Experience: Helicopter Warfare in Vietnam.
But their ubiquity also helped bring about a brand new military division: air cavalry, or light infantry deployed by helicopters.
The strike, which was ordered by President Richard Nixon under the name Operation Linebacker II, was meant to force the North Vietnamese back to the table following a failed round of peace talks.
In 1980, the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons settled on new protocols banning weapons considered both excessively injurious and indiscriminate—i.e., those that might harm civilians, a definition that would cover the incendiary weapon napalm.

10 Presidential Marriage Proposals

But he courted her for two years, going ice-skating with her and her friends (even though he hated ice-skating), wooing her with letters, and even patiently driving her to dates with other men.
So he asked her to meet him for breakfast.
Less than three months later, he returned to Texas with a ring.
Finally, she stood up, walked over to him, and said, “If you’re going to keep looking at me, and I’m going to keep looking back, we might as well be introduced.
Laura would later joke, “All our friends were married.
That’s why we had to marry each other, I guess.”
It’s a good thing they took the leap: many credit her as the brains behind his later success.
The two met for lunch.
I’ve been down this road before.’” On their first date they saw Do the Right Thing and went to Baskin-Robbins.
Andrew Jackson proposed to his future wife, Rachel Robards, when she was married to another man.

Robert Smalls: The Slave Who Stole a Confederate Warship and Became a Congressman

It was the spring of 1862, and Robert Smalls—a 23-year-old enslaved man living in Charleston, South Carolina—was desperate to buy the freedom of his wife and children.
At around age 15, he had found work on the city’s docks and joined the crew of the ship CSS Planter.
Each day, Robert walked alone to the docks and wharves of Charleston, eventually finding himself work on the CSS Planter.
The captain of the CSS Planter, C.J.
He knew the shipping routes.
Smalls raised the Confederate and Palmetto flags and pointed the boat at the open ocean.
3 port gun in the direction of the Planter and was ready to fire when somebody aboard cried, “I see something that looks like a white flag!” The command to fire was dropped.
Smalls did.
After the war, Smalls returned to South Carolina with the money he earned and bought his former owner’s house.
In 1915, Robert Smalls died in the same house.

Milner Library Is Digitizing the Colorful History of the Circus

Milner Library Is Digitizing the Colorful History of the Circus.
This May, Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus will be ending their 146-year run with one final show at the Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum on Long Island.
The library has spent years protecting circus history by digitizing thousands of posters, photographs, and Kodachrome slides.
After receiving a $268,000 grant from the Council on Library and Information Resources, the library can now expand their online collection by digitizing over 300 circus route books spanning from 1842 to 1969.
Circus route books are usually written at the end of a season and give a detailed summary of the circus’s goings-on.
“[The route books] gives us a real snapshot of what the circus looked like.”
Together, the trio will work to digitize 315 route books so that readers can peruse the collection by specific names, circus shows, and towns.
In the 1870s, trapeze artists set up a community and would practice in barns in the Bloomington area.
The images can be sorted by performer names, circuses, locations, stage names, and subjects.
Images: Copyright 2010-2014, Special Collections, Milner Library, Illinois State University.

A Newly Discovered Photo of Harriet Tubman Is Up for Auction

A Newly Discovered Photo of Harriet Tubman Is Up for Auction.
A newly discovered photograph of Harriet Tubman is going up for sale at Swann Auction Galleries in New York City, according to Jezebel.
The previously unrecorded image is part of an 1860s carte de visite collection, a type of miniature photo album that was popular at the time.
Tubman’s photo is one of 44 photo cards of abolitionists and politicians collected by Emily Howland, a Quaker abolitionist.
The photo (left) is a particularly rare find because of how young Tubman was when it was taken.
It dates back to just after the Civil War when she was in her early forties.
(Tubman was born sometime between 1819 and 1823, but the exact date is unknown.)
Many of the known photos of the abolitionist and suffragist show her later in life.
The famous photo on the right was taken sometime in the 1870s when she was in her early fifties.
The photograph is going up for auction on March 30.

Forgotten History: Walter Hunt and the Safety Pin

Despite helping the pair improve the machine, the young Hunt was left off the patent.
In 1827, Hunt filed for his second patent, this time for a foot operated gong to be fitted in carriages.
To help get around the problem, many carriages had air horns installed.
As he had done so often before, Hunt sold the patent for the safety pin for a reported $400 (about $11,000 today), with the rights to it ultimately ending up in the hands of W.R. Grace and Company, who would go on to make many millions of dollars off the product.
Perhaps Hunt’s third most famous invention, outside of the safety pin and the repeating rifle, was one of the first commercially viable sewing machines that used a then revolutionary two threaded lockstich mechanism (see a graphic of how it works here) still commonly used today.
Legend has it Hunt refused to patent his 1833 automated sewing machine invention because he didn’t want to put seamstresses out of work, so didn’t push the invention with various companies as he didn’t want to see it made.
Soon after, various companies, most notably Singer Sewing Machines, started copying and selling Howe’s design, at which point Howe began suing them.
And so it was that Hunt finally made a small fortune off one of his inventions… right?
His family, however, reportedly did benefit from the settlement.
In the end, while he never made a fortune off his various inventions that did make other people rich, nor was he well-known in life or death like so many other prolific inventors, the New York Tribune did at least publish an article about Hunt after he passed away, noting, For more than 40 years, he has been known as an experiment in the arts.

Are These the Skeletons of the First European Colonists in the U.S.?

Are These the Skeletons of the First European Colonists in the U.S.?.
But it wasn’t until a building owner decided to tear up a flooded floor to mitigate water damage that an historic discovery was made—what may be the skeletons of the earliest European colonists in the United States.
Menéndez became the first governor of Florida, and St. Augustine was its capital for two centuries.
In 1572, the town was relocated from a barrier island onto the mainland, following difficulties defending it from the Timucua Indians.
The sites of both churches, which were in use between the 16th and 18th centuries, have seen archaeological excavations over the years, including the discovery of numerous burials.
La Soledad produced evidence of European, African, and Native American individuals buried in Spanish and British styles, while Los Remedios has European and Native American burials in Christian style.
New graves discovered during flood mitigation in January are being excavated this week by city archaeologist Carl Halbirt due to a planned expansion of a water main through St. Augustine’s Charlotte Street.
Based on the majolica pottery inclusions, the burials date to 1572–1586 and were therefore almost certainly among the earliest made in St. Augustine.
The discovery of these graves also means that archaeologists have further physical evidence from Los Remedios, cementing its label as the oldest known parish church in the United States.
If the people unearthed were indeed founders of St. Augustine, Worth notes, their skeletons may reveal “the struggles of life during the first two decades of the city’s earliest history.” Analysis of the remains themselves is only just beginning, but preliminary work by University of Florida anthropologist John Krigbaum suggests the people who were just found appear to be European adults.

14 Vintage Ads Featuring Ronald Reagan

14 Vintage Ads Featuring Ronald Reagan.
Reagan’s first film, Love Is On the Air, was released in 1937, and by 1941, a poll of movie theater owners ranked him fifth among up-and-coming movie stars.
And what’s a celebrity to do but give celebrity endorsements?
Reagan appeared in another advertisement for Marlboro Shirt Company in Life magazine, showing off a couple of collar styles just before Easter, 1949.
This ad was featured in the December 3, 1951 issue of Life magazine.
Hair tonics—lightweight, alcohol-based hair products—were popular in the ’50s and still show up in barbershops today.
This February 1951 ad for the Cigar Institute of America suggests that Reagan’s approach to cigars was the same as his approach to pipes: smoke, just don’t inhale.
In 1954, Reagan was hired by General Electric to host General Electric Theater, a popular CBS anthology TV show that mixed dramatic stories with advertising for GE products and the modern “electric home” more generally.
The tagline for these segments was “Live Better Electrically,” the name of a multi-million dollar campaign co-sponsored by GE and Westinghouse that aimed to sell not just specific products but the idea of a home populated with appliances and reliant on electricity.
This advertisement appeared in 1961 when Reagan was still presenting General Electric Theater, which he hosted the show until the following year.

WWI Centennial: U.S. Breaks Off Relations With Germany

WWI Centennial: U.S.
Breaks Off Relations With Germany.
Breaks Off Relations With Germany Germany’s fateful decision to resume unrestricted submarine warfare on February 1, 1917, allowing U-boat commanders to sink unarmed neutral vessels without warning, sent shockwaves around the world after it was publicly announced on the last day of January.
Coming close on the heels of President Wilson’s offer to host peace talks, the new U-boat campaign was a slap in the face to the United States, which had twice threatened to break off diplomatic relations with Germany over this precise issue; there was now no way to avoid an open breach, setting the stage for America’s entry into the war.
This wasn’t for lack of effort by Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff, the German ambassador to America, who frantically tried to persuade Berlin to delay the U-boat campaign, dispatching a flurry of secret telegrams up to the very last moment.
The following day, January 27, Bernstorff again warned Berlin: If the U-boat campaign is opened now with any further ado, the President will regard this as a smack in the face, and war with the United States will be inevitable.
The war party here will gain the upper hand, and the end of the war will be quite out of sight, as, whatever people may say to the contrary, the resources of the United States are enormous… At present, therefore, it is only a matter of postponing the declaration for a little while so that we may improve our diplomatic position.
On January 29, however, Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg brushed off Bernstorff’s warnings with the breezy assertion that Wilson’s proposal for peace negotiations came too late: If his offer had only reached us a few days earlier, we should have been able to postpone opening of the new U-boat war.
In any event both men were outraged, and Lansing, who had long been sympathetic to the Allies, advocated an immediate declaration of war.
See the previous installment or all entries.

Museum Immortalizes Weasel That Shut Down the Large Hadron Collider

Museum Immortalizes Weasel That Shut Down the Large Hadron Collider.
Valiant though the weasel was, it was tragically no match for superconductive wires it came in contact with when it hopped a substation fence.
Fans of the weasel will be delighted to learn that its stuffed and slightly singed body will soon go on display at the Rotterdam Natural History Museum in the Netherlands.
The electrocuted weasel (technically a beech marten, Martes foina) is just one small charred part of the museum’s upcoming Dead Animal Tales exhibition, which also includes a hedgehog that got trapped in a McFlurry machine.
The program is the brainchild of museum director Kees Moeliker, who’s been collecting weird animal deaths since 1995, when a duck smashed into the museum building.
The duck died immediately; alarmingly, this did not prevent it from becoming the object of another duck’s rather forceful affections for a full 75 minutes.
The first marten struck in April 2016, but someone disposed of the body before the museum could intervene.
When it happened again in November, the staff at Cern were ready and put the carcass aside.
“We want to show that no matter what we do to the environment, to the natural world, the impact of nature will always be there,” Moeliker told The Guardian.
“We try to put a magnifying glass on some fine examples.

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